# Magnetic circuits

Basics of magnetic circuits

A magnetic circuit is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing a magnetic flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets and confined to the path by magnetic cores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like iron, although there may be air gaps or other materials in the path. Magnetic circuits are employed to efficiently channel magnetic fields in many devices such as electric motors, generators, transformers, relays, lifting electromagnets, SQUIDs, galvanometers, and magnetic recording heads.

What you’ll learn

• magnetic circuits.
• magnetic flux.
• flux density.

Course Content

• Introduction –> 1 lecture • 12min.
• MAGNETIC FLUX –> 1 lecture • 11min.
• PROPERTIES OF MAGNETIC FLUX –> 1 lecture • 5min.
• MAGNETIC FLUX INTENSITY –> 1 lecture • 10min.
• RELUCTANCE –> 1 lecture • 8min.
• SIMILARITIES OF ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUITS –> 1 lecture • 10min.
• DISSIMILARITIES OF MAGNETIC CIRCUITS –> 1 lecture • 15min.
• FARADAY’S LAW –> 1 lecture • 14min.
• ELECTROMAGNETICALLY INDUCED EMF –> 1 lecture • 19min.

Requirements

• come with an open mind.

A magnetic circuit is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing a magnetic flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets and confined to the path by magnetic cores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like iron, although there may be air gaps or other materials in the path. Magnetic circuits are employed to efficiently channel magnetic fields in many devices such as electric motors, generators, transformers, relays, lifting electromagnets, SQUIDs, galvanometers, and magnetic recording heads.

The law relating magnetic flux, magnetomotive force, and magnetic reluctance in an unsaturated magnetic circuit, Hopkinson’s law bears a superficial resemblance to Ohm’s law in electrical circuits, resulting in a one-to-one correspondence between properties of a magnetic circuit and an analogous electric circuit. Using this concept the magnetic fields of complex devices such as transformers can be quickly solved using the methods and techniques developed for electrical circuits.

Some examples of magnetic circuits are:

• horseshoe magnet with iron keeper (low-reluctance circuit)
• horseshoe magnet with no keeper (high-reluctance circuit)
• electric motor (variable-reluctance circuit)
• some types of pickup cartridge (variable-reluctance circuits)

Applications

• Air gaps can be created in the cores of certain transformers to reduce the effects of saturation. This increases the reluctance of the magnetic circuit, and enables it to store more energy before core saturation. This effect is used in the flyback transformers of cathode-ray tube video displays and in some types of switch-mode power supply.
• Variation of reluctance is the principle behind the reluctance motor (or the variable reluctance generator) and the Alexanderson alternator.
• Multimedia loudspeakers are typically shielded magnetically, in order to reduce magnetic interference caused to televisions and other CRTs. The speaker magnet is covered with a material such as soft iron to minimize the stray magnetic field.

Reluctance can also be applied to variable reluctance (magnetic) pickups.

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